G.J. van Dam, N. Midzi, T. Mduluza, S. Mutero, J.H. Kihara, C.J. de Dood, A.M. Deelder, A.E. Butterworth and many collaborators in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, Senegal etc.
The advantages of field microscopical diagnosis are its high specificity, low costs and measurement of quantitative data. Disadvantages include sample definition: sampling errors; Labour-intensive: workload; the need for trained technicians: sensitivity related; the need for multiple samples and the subsequent logistic problems and the professional hazard.
Requirements for field test include easy to perform; fast results; easy to read; high accuracy; shows active infection; long shelf life; no equipment needed and low cost (< US$ 3).